Photographs (left to right): Ribbon Snake, Pennsylvania; Swamp, Florida; Sandhill Cranes, Shark Valley NP, Florida

Wampum Belt Archive


Fort Halifax (PA) 1756 Belt




Hypothetical belt based on description of the belt given

Daniel Harrison/R.D. Hamell April 18 2020


Original Size:



Length: 36.0 inches. Width: 7.5 inches. Total w/fringe: 60 inches


Wide: 15 beads Length: 227: Beads: 3,405


Warp: Deer Leather. Weft: Articial Sinew


Excerpt from Daniel Israel:

At a conference held at the camp at Armstrong's, June 10, 1756, between Col. William Clapham, and Oghaghradisha, an Indian chief of the Iroquois on the waters of Susquehanna.

Present—Captains Lloyd and Shipper; Interpreters, James Lowry and Lewis Momour, My Brother.

Col. Johnston at my departure told me, thus brother, I find great difficulties in governing and supplying the wants of the Six Nations, in, connection with me, 'tis therefore impossible I should also take charge of those seated at a distance on the waters of the Susquehanna, for which reason, I have recommended them by you, and this string of wampum to Col. Clapham (or Ugcarumhiunth) for that purpose. Brother,

The Iroquois living on the North Branch of Sasquehanna have lent me as a representative of the whole, to treat with you (producing a belt of wampum) and will ratify all my contracts. Brother, they agree to your building a Fort at Shampooing, but are desirous that you should also build a Fort three days journey, in a canoe, higher up, the North Branch, in their country, at a place called "Adjouquay," and this belt of wampum is to clear the road to that place. Brother,

If you agree to my proposals in behalf of my nation, I will return and immediately collect our whole force to be employed, in protecting your people while you are building a fort in our country at Adjouquay, where there is a poor situation and fine soil at the entrance of a deep creek on a level plain five miles extending, and clear of woods. "Adjouquay is fourteen miles above Wioming, and an old woman may carry a heavy pack of skins from thence to the Minismk, and return to Adjouquay in two nights. My Brother—

The land is troubled, and you may justly apprehend danger, but if you will grant our request we will be together, and if any danger happens to you, we will share it with you. My Brother, I have known this young man a good while (pointing to James Lowry) and have travelled far with him: he is a proper man, and knows the country well. I should be glad to recommend him as a companion on the march.

My Brother, (laying down a belt of wampum folded in the middle) this describes your pith to Shamokin; (unfolding the bet and extending it to its full length) this is your road to Adjouquay.

Upon which he presented a belt, and offered his little son as a pledge def his fidelity, insisting at the same time that Col. Clapham should visit their town, escorted by their warriors, who despising to turn out of their way, would conduct him thro' the Delaware town, to their Tillage, in defiance of all opposition whatever. [Prov. Rec. O.]

Note (Harrison)

The belt probably had three squares representing the three forts which were approved to be built in Iroquois territory. As described there is a continue horizontal pathway connecting the fort symbols and may have extended beyond the end fort boundaries. I envision it to have been similar to the Four Fort Belt

However, even this belt was reconstructed from a description and therefore, an 'educated' guess.

I extend my appreciation to Paul DeRosier for sending an inquiry on the existence of the Fort Halifax Belt. If a reader has information on this belt it would very much like to hear from them.


Daniel, Israel. 1803-1878. The history and topography of Dauphin, Cumberland, Franklin, Bedford, Adams, and Perry counties [Pennsylvania]. In Rupp, 2010, Nabu Press. 612pp.

Harrison, Daniel. 2020. Personal Communicatons